"About the middle of the eighteenth century, settlers began to move into Piedmont North Carolina and in a short time had reached the foot of the mountains. Most were Scots-Irish and Germans who left Pennsylvania due to increasing land rents and other economic difficulties." (1)
This westward migration of settlers occurred in stages of moving, settling for awhile and then moving on. There were several routes west, but the route that is of particular importance to our family is the Great Emigrant Road which ran from Philadelphia to Cincinnati and Louisville. One should not be mislead by the term "road" since this route was for the most part simply a trail. This road took the traveler from Philadelphia through Gettysburg and then essentially followed the Blue Ridge Mountains through areas of the now-existing cities of Lexington, Roanoke and Danville, Virginia. It then crossed the Dan River into North Carolina continuing to Hillsboro, New Garden (Guilford College), Salisbury, Charlotte, and then, crossing into South Carolina, Bush River (Newberry), Greenville, and then back into North Carolina, Asheville. It then went to Bean Station, near Knoxville, Tennessee and next to the Cumberland Gap. Finally, the traveler would be led through Kentucky via Mount Vernon, Danville, Louisville to Paoli, Vincennes and, at last, Cincinnati. Despite this being a major emigration route traveled by thousands, it was still a frontier path and traveling was very difficult.
One group of Moravians moved from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to Bethebara, (near Winston-Salem), North Carolina in 1753. They kept a record of their journey which would have taken them near Halifax County where Joseph Chapman, Sr. was about eight years of age. The Moravians related that in Virginia, about nine miles north of Roanoke, the road was so bad and narrow, they needed to wield their axes to clear a path wide enough for the passage of their wagons. They also had to mend the road as they went. On some days they were able to travel twelve miles.
There was a tributary route to the Great Wagon Road that ran from Lexington to Lynchburg and then on to Danville, Virginia. This the general area of Halifax County where Joseph Chapman was born in 1745.
The earliest land records in Halifax County, Virginia yielded the following information:
Joseph Chapman granted Power of Attorney to his brother, John, on November 16, 1769 to sell 250 acres as Joseph's part of their father's estate. Joseph was then about 24 years of age and a resident of Orange County, North Carolina.
Halifax County was sparsely settled with very few churches, schools and towns. Indeed, as late as 1780, the County Seat of Halifax was described as having only a couple of houses and as being "miserable". The roads were still very poor in this area. "Steep hills washed by heavy rains alternated with deep bottoms and swampy places. Everything fell out of the wagons." (2)
In Joseph's Revolutionary War Pension application made in 1833, he stated that when he entered that service of his Country, he resided in Guilford County, North Carolina. (In 1769, Orange County included territory which would become Guilford County. ) He served under Colonel Paisley in General Rutherford's brigade four months as a Captain.
"In July, 1776, the Cherokees began to pour down upon the mountain settlements, massacring the inhabitants and burning their homes. In September of that year , General Griffith Rutherford and Colonel Andrew Williamson gathered a force of 2,400 men and marched into the Cherokee country. " (3)
"The command of Colonel Rutherford crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains at Swannanoa Gap and passed down the French Broad River and crossed at a ford which is to this day known as War Ford.
Then up the valley of Hominey Creek and crossing the Pigeon River proceeding in the direction of the valley of Little Tennessee. He burnt the Indian towns of Watonga, Estoetoa, Elijay. At the last town his command united with Colonel Williamson who assumed command of the whole. (4)
It had been originally agreed that Rutherford and Williamson would meet September 5 and press an attack against the Middle Settlements of Cherokees in North Carolina. Williamson was delayed and did not leave Seneca, South Carolina until September 13. he had to wait for Sumter and his rangers. On September 26, Williamson and Rutherford finally met.
The trouble with the Indians during 1776 was in a great measure instigated by the Tory emissaries of the British. Colonel Williamson captured thirteen white men disguised as Indians.
Among the men who belonged to Colonel Rutherford's command were Colonel Martin, who commanded a regiment from Guilford.
It is recorded that when this command set out it was almost destitute of clothing and tents. Their uniforms were principally of rude cloth made from hemp, tow, and wild nettle bark and as a sample of the uniforms worn by the officers, Colonel Rutherford's consisted of a tow hunting shirt dyed black and trimmed with white fringe.
At the conclusion of the Cherokee Campaign of 1776, Joseph Chapman returned home to Guilford County, after serving about four months. At this time, judging from census records and various courthouse records, he was married and the father of three, perhaps four, children (i.e. Nancy, John, William and perhaps, Jeremiah). Nevertheless, he joined Captain Andrew Vannoy and a body of men under the command of General Locke at Wilmington, North Carolina. The troops were marched to a place in South Carolina called Pine Tree. This force was intended to meet the British but, after about four months, dispersed without any encounters with the enemy. Joseph returned home to Guilford County, again.
The location of Pine Tree today is uncertain. Having searched extant maps of that period, we could find no place designated "Pine Tree" in or about 1777 or 1778. However, Camden was first called Pine Tree Hill because of nearby Pine Tree Creek. The name lasted only about ten years, and in 1768 was changed to Camden.
Early in 1779, Governor Caswell of North Carolina called out the North Carolina Militia from Wilmington, Newbern, Edenton and Halifax to march to the aid of besieged South Carolina. South Carolina felt that, as ofMay 1779, it was abandoned by the rest of the colonies. "The fact remained to the people of South Carolina that they were beyond the pale of general safety and that the principles of military expediency required them to be left, in a great measure, to shift for themselves. (5)
South Carolina remembered that they had sent without hesitation, a large part to the powder they had seized in 1775 to assist in maintaining the siege of Boston. They had lavishly contributed to the common expense. the Continental troops of Virginia and North Carolina were almost all serving with the Northern Army. Those in South Carolina and Georgia had been wasted in the swamps of Georgia and Florida upon useless expeditions, in sickly seasons, against the advice and protests of the South Carolina officers.
Now that South Carolina was invaded and a persistent effort was being made to subjugate it, the South Carolinians were told that they were too far away to be protected by Congress. The revolutionists in North Carolina fully recognized the fact that it was wise as well as generous to furnish assistance to their neighboring state.
On December 27, 1778 Moultrie marched from Charlestown with North and South Carolina troops amounting to 1,200 men and arrived at Purrysburg January 3, 1779. The continentals were stationed there and the North Carolinians about two miles off. (Joseph Chapman, Sr. may have served with the 400 or 500 more North Carolinians who came in by January 14th, 1779) (6)
On February 10, 1779 Moultrie wrote to Edward Pinckney that a whole regiment of 400 North Carolinians said their time was out and they intended to march homeward that day.
The troops were not given food by Congress, but were expected to live off the land. Food and supplies were extremely scarce, resulting in illness and discontent. The people who lived in the areas where camps were set up were in no condition, especially during the winter months, to feed the vast numbers who had descended upon them. (7)
Joseph, upon returning from Pine Tree, immediately removed to South Carolina and settled on Turkey Creek in Ninety Six District. The present counties of Abbeville, Newberry, Union, Laurens, Cherokee, Edgefield, Anderson, Pickens, Oconee, Greenville, and Spartanburg then comprised Ninety Six District.
Turkey Creek was apparently a lively little community around the late 18th Century. It is interesting to note that at least one other family, the Hallums, originally from Halifax County, Virginia and later found in Pickens County, South Carolina, also lived at Turkey Creek at the same time as Joseph Chapman. Joseph was granted land in Guilford County, NC after the Revolution, near present day Reidsville, and that land bordered John Hallum's. That land was on the Little Troublesome-Creek and Hogans Creek of the Haw River. In 1791, in Pickens County, SC, John Hallum settled the now extinct town of Pickensville, near present day Liberty .
Today, the community of Turkey Creek no longer exists. But Turkey Creek, Hard Labor Creek and Stevens Creek fed a fertile area in present day Edgefield County, near the Savannah River. If Joseph moved his family so quickly upon returning from service at Pine Tree because he was concerned about the Cherokee uprisings, then Turkey Creek was a logical choice. It was near the Great Wagon Road that led from Virginia to Augusta, Georgia and it also was a safe distance from the Cherokee.
Joseph settled in Turkey Creek a short time before the Fall of Charleston to the British on May 12. 1780. North Carolina at that time was almost equally divided between the Loyalists and the Revolutionists. It is interesting that Joseph chose to fight the Cherokee first. Perhaps, had the British not stirred the Cherokees against the settlers, he might have not made the decision to join the revolutionists. As his grandchildren and great-grandchildren were forced to defend their land from invaders eighty years later, Joseph may have felt that circumstances required him to fight the British to protect his family from outside forces. The almost equal division of loyalties in North Carolina led to fierce fighting of partisan groups. Atrocities were committed on both sides and were not limited to fighting men but threatened whole families. South Carolina had its problems, but not in the numbers as its northern neighbor.
After the Fall of Charleston, Joseph joined a company under the command of Captain Robert Anderson and marched against Star Fort at the village of Ninety Six, which was then in the hands of the British and Loyalists. The Revolutionary Claims record, Book E, Vol. 6, page 64, states that Joseph served for eleven months, twenty-five days under Captain Anderson. Colonel Andrew Pickens commanded the regiment to which his company was attached and the whole was under the command ofMajor General Nathaniel Greene.
Greene began the siege on May 22, 1781. Joseph was present "when the first spade full of dirt was thrown up at the siege" until the impending arrival of Lord Rawdon caused the siege to be lifted. The place was defended by a strong, earthen star-shaped fort by "one of the most gallant officers and admirable gentlemen in the war. Lt. Colonel John Harris Cruger of New York.
Colonel Cruger's garrison of 550 regulars were all Americans. On June 18, Greene made a costly and futile assault on the fort precipitated by the approach of British reinforcements by Lord Rawdon. Greene's forces retreated, dispersing to escape the superior numbers of Lord Rawdon. Joseph's company was dispersed and met fifteen or twenty miles below Ninety Six at which time he was allowed to return to his family. Greene retreated towards Winnsboro and crossed the Enoree River, whereupon Rawdon, thinking Greene had gone into North Carolina or Virginia, gave up the chase. At the end of the siege on June 19, the total Revolutionists' casualties were 185; Loyalists' casualties were 65.
Colonel Cruger evacuated Star Fort, as had been ordered prior to the siege, to join Lord Rawdon. The British had expected the French fleet at Beaufort, SC. That led the British to abandon their interior posts in South Carolina. But, the French went to Yorktown.
Joseph's next, and last, period of service was under Captain Robert Maxwell who raised a company of dragoons and joined Colonel Andrew Pickens in an expedition into the Cherokee Country. This was necessitated by the British, whose emissaries " had induced the Cherokee Indians to commence hostilities against the Americans. They, with a number of white men disguised, murdered some families and burnt some houses. General Pickens collected 394 men and marched into Cherokee Country, burnt thirteen towns and killed upwards of forty Indians and took a great deal of Indians prisoner, and returned in fourteen days, not one of his party killed and only three wounded". (8)
Pickens had no sympathy for the three that were wounded. He wrote that they disobeyed orders and left the main body to chase Cherokees through the wooded slopes. Being lured away from the rest of the troops made them extremely vulnerable in the Cherokees land.
The Cherokee raids had been merciless. A Loyalist known only as "Bloody Bates" led a band of Cherokees and whites painted like Indians against Gowen's fort on the Pacolet River (Near present day Spartanburg). The Patriots defended the fort for a short time, then surrendered as prisoners of war. They were immediately massacred by the enemy . (9) A Mrs. Thompson was scalped by the Indians yet lived to a ripe old age. After the War, Bates was killed by one Motley, whose family was massacred at Gowen's fort. (10)
General Andrew Pickens set out for Ninety Six on August 8, 1782 to prepare his brigade. It was planned before the legislature opened in January 1782. It was to be a final punitive expedition. Pickens issued orders proclaiming the death penalty for killing Indian women, children, old men or any other unfit to bear arms. Pickens was an Elder in the Presbyterian Church, hence his nickname, "The Fighting Elder".
During this last period of service, Joseph was engaged in "many skirmishes and scouts". One engagement was at an Indian town named Tessenty, which was located at present day Waynesville, North Carolina near Smith's Bridge. Joseph took part in the destruction of the town. The inhabitants were killed or captured.
The same day as the Battle ofTessenty, Joseph was out on a scout about four or five miles from the town with Captain Maxwell and twenty-five men. The company was separated. Joseph and two other men came across four Indians at camp. The Indians broke in different directions, Joseph pursued two Indians upToney Mountain. When he fired on them, his gun misfired and the Indians turned on him. Joseph was shot through the body by one of them with a rifle.
Fortunately, Joseph survived his wound but was put under the care of Doctor Russell where he remained all winter. He was unable to serve anymore after being wounded, but the end of the conflict was near at any rate.
Joseph's Estate papers contained his Revolutionary War Pension Application which is reproduced here:
The State of South Carolina
On the Twelfth day of March One thousand eight hundred and thirty three Joseph Chapman in open Court of General Sessions and Common Pleas for Pickens District in the State aforesaid aged Eighty Seven years last Christmas a resident in Said District who being first duly sworn according to law doth on his oath make the following Declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the act of Congress passes June 7th 1832. That he was born in Halifax County Virginia the 25th December 1745 and when he entered the service of his country he resided in Guilford County North Carolina when he enlisted or joined General Rutherford in an expedition against the Cherokee Indians and was in several engagements or skirmishes with said Indians and in which said expeditions he acted as captain and served four months. On his return he enlisted or joined under Captain Andrew Vanoy and joined a body of men under the command of General Lock at Wilmington North Carolina and was marched to a placed called Pine Tree in South Carolina which force was disposed to meet the British and served in this expedition four months. He returned home and immediately removed to South Carolina and settled in Turkey Creek then in Ninety Six District which removal place a short time previous to the fall of Charleston. A short time after the fall of Charleston he joined a company under the command of Captain Robert Anderson and marched against the fort at Ninety Six then in the hands of the British and Tories. Colonel Andrew Pickens commanded the regiment to which his company was attached and the whole was under the command of Major General Greene and he was present when the first spade of dirt was thrown up at the seige. Lord Rawdon coming to the relief of the fort the besieging army retreated. The company to which he was attached dispersed and met 15 or 20 miles below Ninety Six when he was allowed to return home to his family. He served at this time about four weeks. A few weeks after his return home he enlisted under Captain Robert Maxwell in an expedition into the Cherokee Country and was engaged in many skirmishes and scouts. One engagement was at an Indian Town by the name of Tessenty when we destroyed the town and killed and took the inhabitants. The same day of the Battle of Tessenty he was out on a scout about four or five miles from the Town with Captain Maxwell and 25 men. The company was separated and he and Maxwell and two others came across four Indians at the camp. The Indians broke in different directions this deponent pursuing two Indians up Toney Mountain when he fired on them but misfiring the Indians turned on him. He was shot through the body with a rifle. Colonel Clark was in the above engagement with a detachment from Georgia. The deponent was never able to serve after receiving the wound stated and returned home.
I hereby relinquish every claim whatever to a pension or annuity except the present and declare that my name is not on the Pension Role of the agency of any State. I have no record of my age. I have lived in South Carolina Pendleton District ever since the war. I volunteered my services.
Joseph X Chapman
William L. Keith, Clerk of Court
Personally came Joseph Chapman before me the subscribing Justice and makes following affidavit (in order to amend his application for a Pension under the Act of 7th June 1832 which was made out at Pickens Court and certifyed for 12 March 1833 and forwarded to the War Department and returned as deficient)
That he entered the services of the United States in the summer of 1776 under Colonel Paceley (Paisley?) General Rutherford's Brigade served four months as a Captain. That his Enlistment under Captain Maxwell was for a tour of Eighteen Months that he served to the best of his recollection three months of said tour when he received a wound which rendered him unable for service was put under the care of Doctor Russell where he remained all winter. That he is confident he served four weeks as specified under Captain Anderson that his Terms of Service under Captain Maxwell and Captain Anderson he served as a Private that he never received a regular discharge.
Sworn to and Subscribed before me this 8th October 1833
Joseph X Chapman
I William L. Keith Esquire Clerk of the Court of Pickens District do hereby certify Bailey Barton whose name appears to the above affidavit is an acting Justice of the Peace for the Said district duly appointed Qualified and acting as such as that due faith should be placed to his official character as such given under my hand and seal of office at Pickens Courthouse this 8th day of October 1833
William L. Keith
Clerk of Court
for Pickens District
The Settlement Years
In 1783, after the Revolution, Joseph Chapman was granted 320 acres on Hogan's Creek of the Haw River in Guilford County by the State of North Carolina for his service. This land bordered John Hallum's land. Joseph was also granted another 100 acres in the same area. Present day maps indicate this land to be in Rockingham County near Reidsville.
On March 21, 1784, Joseph resided in Ninety Six District. So, he sold his 321 acres to Isaac Low of Guilford County for 100 pounds North Carolina currency. The tract was on Hogan's Creek and Little Troublesome Creek. The transaction was witnessed by John Hallum, Joseph Clark, William Clark, Jr. and William Clark.
Then, on July 27 of the same year, Joseph Chapman, sold the remaining 100 acres to Isaac Low for 50 pounds North Carolina currency. This transaction was witnessed by John Edmondson, Rebecca Clark and William Clark.
In 1785, the people and newly ceded lands above the old Indian boundary south of the Saluda River were attached to Abbeville County of Ninety Six District. In 1789, these lands were set off from Abbeville as Pendleton County of Ninety Six District. In 1826, Pickens and Anderson Counties were formed out of Pendleton District. Public buildings of old Pickens town were of wood and were erected on a site west of the Keowee River near Robertson's Ford.
By following the locations of lands bought and sold, we can follow Joseph's progress up country from Turkey Creek toward the newly ceded Cherokee lands, which were formally opened for settlement in 1784, although some whites had moved in sooner.
1791 Joseph Chapman, of Pendleton County, bought 305 acres on the Saluda River, south fork, from George and Mary Shuler.
1796 Joseph bought 98 acres on the Saluda River from Robert Townes. He sold this tract in 1803 to Blake Mauldin.
1798 Joseph bought 137 acres on 23 Mile Creek (which is southeast of present day, Easley) from Benjamin Smith.
1799 Joseph sold 300 acres on the 12 Mile River to Joseph Smith.
1800 Joseph bought 275 acres on 12 Mile River from Bennet and Dolitha Combs.
1804 Joseph bought the first of three parcels of 234 acres each, from three Griffin brothers, which were to become Joseph's estate. This parcel came from Answell Griffin.
1805 Joseph sold 200 acres on Golden's Creek to John Byrd.
1808 Joseph bought the second parcel of 234 acres from Oswell Griffin.
1815 Joseph bought the third parcel of 234 acres from Sergent Griffin.
Searching For New Lands
The Georgia Land Lotteries and Moving West
Joseph Chapman had twelve children that survived to adulthood and almost all of them had large families. Pendleton County in Ninety Six District had more than doubled its population from 1790 to 1800 due not only from the birthrate but from emigration from the low country, as well as from the surrounding states. With the frontier being pushed further west and the Indians subdued, more people began to encroach on and cross what was left of Cherokee Lands. Large numbers began moving into western South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, then to move on past the Blue Ridge and the Smokey Mountains. Lands were farmed to the point of no longer being fertile, then the settlers abandoned their farms and moved on looking for a better place. Many of Joseph's children were among these pioneers.
Jeremiah Chapman led his family and some of Joseph, Jr.'s, into eastern Tennessee. From there, the family continued on to Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois. Many of the third generation can be found in these states on the 1850 Census. (This brings home the literal meaning of "brother against brother" in the War that was to come in just a few decades. )
As people left the lands for the promise of better lands to the West, states began to look for ways to induce settlement in sparsely populated areas. Georgia passed several legislative acts, beginning as early as 1777, with the express purpose of better settling and strengthening their State. The first effective Land
Act was passed in February 17, 1783. Georgia held Land Lotteries in 1805, 1807, 1820, 1821, 1827 and 1832.
Joseph Chapman, Sr. his son George, his widowed daughter, Nancy Patterson, along with her daughter and son in law, James Cantrell went to HaIl County, Georgia in hopes of gaining land in the lottery. Enoch Chapman, also went to HaIl County and that is where his son, George, was born and, we believe, his first wife -- Chastain, died.
The land lots in HaIl County were 250 acres, 3,300 feet square. The grant fee was $18.00 per land lot.
John Chapman and his sister, Nancy Chapman Patterson participated in the lottery. Nancy and her family later sold their lot to Joseph, Sr., who then sold the lot to his youngest son, George. This George Chapman established the Chapman family in HaIl County, Georgia. He lived there until his death and is buried there.
Nancy Patterson, a widow and her family left Hall county in 1831 for lands in been and Gilmer Counties after the 1832 Land Lottery. Gold had found in these counties and gold lots consisted of 40 acres while land lots contained 160 acres. The grant was $18.00 per lot, regardless of the acreage contained.
Since John Chapman's wife, Christiana, is found in Gilmer County on the 1850 Census living in the Marlin household with Chapmans nearby, it appears that some of John's children had acquired land in this last lottery. After John's death in 1850, Christiana remained in Georgia and sent a representative to Pickens District, SC to settle John's estate. John, like his father, Joseph, died intestate.
We know that Joseph Chapman was in Hall County, Georgia as early as 1827, because of the legal paper he filed against William C. Ladd in that year. Joseph's youngest daughter, Polly, had married an apparent scoundrel, William C. Ladd. In 1817, Ladd defaulted on several debts in Pendleton County, SC. He neither showed up at court in his own defense nor did he later pay the judgments against him.
Nevertheless, Joseph had, at the marriage of William Ladd and Polly Chapman, given his son in law $800 in property and slaves. Ladd was supposed to keep a stud horse for Joseph in Habersham County, Georgia, for one year. Joseph had loaned money to Ladd and sold other property to him. The balance of what Ladd made of the horse and of what money Joseph had loaned him and the property sold to Ladd long after his marriage to Polly, then amounted to $250 besides the gift of $800 at the time of this marriage.
Joseph filed this affidavit because Ladd fled Georgia recently and Joseph was determined to have a settlement with him. But besides trying to bring Ladd to account, Joseph wanted, he stated, to deal justly with all his children. He also stated that he never intended thereafter to give Ladd "one cent as a son in law or stranger."
Joseph Chapman's Heirs
Joseph died in 1836. It is not recorded when his wife, Mary, died. She was listed on the 1830 census but is not mentioned in the list of legatees or later census lists, so we assume that she died about the same time as Joseph.
John Chapman on May 2, 1836 brought a bill of complaint in the Court of Equity against Enoch Chapman and others showing that Joseph Chapman, Senior, departed this life intestate and owned considerable real estate. (11) The court ordered the land to be sold at auction to the highest bidder since it would be hard to divide the estate equitably amongst the heirs. Reverend John Burdine bought 778 acres for $1,511. Said land lay on both sides of the 12 Mile River whereon Joseph Chapman had lately lived and adjoined lands belonging to Benjamin Hagood and Sergent Griffin.
The far-f1ung heirs were notified and they either came or sent representatives from as far away as Indiana and Illinois. Joseph, Jr., had died about the same time as his father. We know this because the estate papers list the heirs of Joseph Chapman, Jr. and not Joseph, Jr., himself. William Chapman apparently died shortly after the estate division began because he is listed among the legatees. But he did not sign the list of those who received their share of the estate after the auction. Neither did any of his heirs! John Chapman went to court against Enoch Chapman and others in 1837, 1838, and 1839 to gain guardianship of William Chapman's minor children. The minor children are not named. The court retained guardianship in each case.
The following is part of the probate records of Joseph Chapman, Sr. on file in the Pickens County Courthouse, Pickens, SC. Box 6.
The petition of the undersigned legatees of the Estate of Joseph Chapman, deceased, pray that you would appoint Benjamin Hagood Administrator of said Estate as it was the wish of our father that he should act as Administrator and we wish the property to be sold as quick as the law will allow for the property is very much exposed.
Ther (sic ) is no will made concerning the said property
Legatees Schedule of Payment
Nancy Patterson $228.00
William Chapman $598.00
John Chapman $158.00
Jeremiah Chapman $148.00
Elizabeth Magee $219.00
John Garner $214.00
Joseph Chapman, Jr. $213.00
Solomon Magee $147.00
William Lynch $227.00
George Chapman $1,028.00
William Ladd $1.05
The following legatees or their representatives signed their agreement to the schedule of payments.
Nancy Patterson, by her attorney in fact, James (x) Cantrell
Elizabeth McGee (Boze), (12) by William Lynch and Jeremiah Chapman, her attorneys in fact.
John, Thomas and Elizabeth Chapman, by their attorney, William Lynch.
William Lynch (signature)
Solomon (x) McGee
Jeremiah (x) Chapman
Archibald (x) Chapman, who was attorney for
John Garner (signature)
Enoch Chapman (signature)
John (x) Chapman
George Chapman (signature)
The following abstracts are included in Joseph, Sr.'s Probate Records and pertain to his grandchildren by Joseph, Jr .
"Joseph Chapman, Jeremiah Chapman and James Chapman of Vanderburg County, Indiana and Samuel Sullivan of Gibson County, Indiana and John Hinson of Wayne County, Illinois appoint our friend, Archibald Chapman of Vanderburg County, Indiana, our attorney to obtain whatever may be due us as heirs of Joseph Chapman what ever may be due us as heirs of Joseph Chapman (Junior) and Polly, his wife, of Pickens District, South Carolina. Samuel Sullivan, in right of his wife, Violet, formerly Violet Chapman, and John Hinson in right of his wife, Polly, formerly Polly Chapman.
Signed at Evansville, Vanderburg County, Indiana on January 31, 1837."
Please note that it was common practice in legal documents of this time to refer to cousins as "friends" instead of stating the relationship. It is highly probable that Archibald Chapman undertook the long, difficult journey as their attorney because he was a relative and it gave him a chance to see relatives he had not seen In many years.
"Elizabeth Boze appoints Jeremiah Chapman and William Lynch her attorneys for her inheritance from her father, Joseph Chapman, deceased.
Signed February 23, 1837 in Smith County, Tennessee."
John, Thomas and Betsy Chapman, sons and daughter of Joseph Chapman, appoint William Lynch their attorney. All of the above were residents of Simpson County, Kentucky at this time. William Lynch was instructed to "sue for their proportioned parts of the said Joseph Chapman's, deceased, our Grandfather's estate."
Signed February 18, 1837, Town of Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky.
"Received December 24, 1841 of Miles C. Norton, $42.81 in full of the distributive share of Nancy Hightower, formerly Nancy Chapman, daughter of Joseph Chapman, Jr. and her husband, Hemington Hightower, and Elbert Penbrook, in behalf of his children, the heirs of Mary Penbrook, formerly Mary Chapman."
Regarding the time lapse in the first three entries, it would seem that the attorneys for the legatees had joined together beginning in Indiana with Archibald Chapman on January 31, 1837, then met up with William Lynch on February 18, 1837 in Simpson County, Kentucky, and next went to Smith County, Tennessee and Jeremiah Chapman on February 23.
On the first Monday in August, 1837, Joseph Chapman, Sr.'s lands were sold at auction at the Pickens Courthouse. (This would have been "Old Pickens" which was located at Robertson's Ford on the Keowee River, near the present day Oconee Nuclear Station. The only building remaining is the old Presbyterian Church, which was made of brick, while the rest of the buildings were wood frame. There is a church yard with some old tombstones, as well as some tombstones moved to the site by Duke Power when the Nuclear Station and dams were built, causing the Keowee to form lakes.) The lands were bought for $1,511 by the Reverend John Burdine. An amazing sum for a preacher to have in those days.
In 1849, John Burdine sold "all that tract of land known as the Joseph Chapman land on both sides of the east fork of 12 Mile River to Benjamin Hagood". Hagood owned the store and mill on land which adjoined the Chapman lands. He administered the estate. Did he front the money to Reverend Burdine with the understanding that at some future date he would purchase the land outright.
Joseph Chapman, unfortunately for us, did not read or write. It did not hinder him or his ambition. Even by modern standards he could be judged a "success". When the Blue Ridge was the frontier, reading was not a skill valued as highly as being able to read the weather, soil, trails and a stranger's character.
But it does present problems for us that we have so few written documents to lead our search. In many cases, after reading reams of court records, and books of the period, and area, deductions may be formed and expressed as being true beyond a reasonable doubt. In the coming pages, which deal with Joseph's children, such conclusions are expressed. None of his children left wills that we have found in South Carolina. We have not searched Tennessee, Kentucky or Indiana as of yet. When such assumptions are made, the reader will be told. Otherwise, the facts were found in courthouses, libraries, and State Archives in South Carolina, Georgia and North Carolina.
1. North Carolina History told by contemporaries, Hugh Talmadge Lefler, editor, UNC Press. Chapel Hill, NC, pg. 38.
2. From Lititz, Pennsylvania to Salem, North Carolina, Bishop and Mrs. John Frederick Reichell, Moravians, May 22 - June 15, 1780.
3. North Carolina in the American Revolution, Hugh F. Rankin, NC State Dept. of Archives & History, Raleigh, NC 1959
4. Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper South Carolina, Dr. J.B.O. Landrum Shannon & Co. Printers, Greenville, SC 1897.
5. History of South Carolina in The Revolution, Edward McCrady. Macmillan, NY. 1901.
7. Memoirs of the American Revolution, William Moultrie. New York Times, NY. c. 1968.
8. Memoirs of the American Revolution, Moultrie
9. General Andrew Pickens, Part I, Ferguson
10. South Carolina in the Revolution, 1780 -1783, McCrady
11. Conveyances, Book D-l, page 467, Pickens County Courthouse, Pickens, SC.
12. Elizabeth Chapman married George McGee, removed with him to Smith County, Tennessee where he died in 1821. She then married William Boze. This record was abstracted in Smith County. Tennessee Wills, 1803- 1896. F.C. Key, McDowell Publishing Co., Utica, KY 1985.